Shaping the Battlefield Part IV: Tactical Apologetics

In my previous post I wrote about what I call operational apologetics: the second tier in a three-tiered metaphorical framework. The three tiers that I compare the apologetic’s landscape to are: the strategic, the operational and here, the tactical.

At the tactical level in military operations is where the real action takes place. Here small units (i.e. companies, platoons and squads) perform real-time combat missions or intelligence gathering activities. Platoons patrol villages, sweep roads, or go out to find, capture or kill enemy combatants. Platoons and teams deal one-on-one with the locals in their respective areas of operations, talking with villagers, eating meals with local leaders, and coordinating maneuvers with indigenous forces. It is at the tactical level that things happen on the battlefield. This is where the strategic-level vision that was spawned in headquarters by generals, disseminated and made concrete at the operational level, is now executed with precision and effectiveness. Here soldiers are “kitted-up” in all their gear, weapons are held at “low-ready,” and bullets or explosions are too be expected. The tactical level is where plans, procedure, policies, and people all meet in real life. It’s often where hearts and minds are either won…or lost. In physical battle, bodies too.

Applying this metaphor to the realm of Apologetics need not appear so intense though (although every Christian should be prepared to face physical danger for the sake of the Gospel). Still, it is at the tactical level of any endeavor, where the spiritual and emotional battle becomes very real. Here, the apologist interacts with friends, family members, students, colleagues, and just about anyone she might come into real, personal contact with. Relationships are developed at this level as tactical operators (teachers, pastors, bloggers, homemakers, and business women) look to take a limited amount of apologetical knowledge and training, putting it to use in their daily lives. These are the youth pastors, the Sunday school teachers, and those that are learning and studying on their own in the hopes of making a greater evangelistic impact in their communities.

Many tactical apologists don’t have formal training like their PhD counterparts, but some might have something akin to an MA in Apologetics from universities like Biola or Liberty. It is at this level, however, that Apologetics has experienced a tremendous boom in recent years. Obviously technology has made that possible to some degree (YouTube, Social Media, blogging, etc.), but also the epistemological shift that has occurred in our culture, and the more overt rejections of both the Christian worldview and the Western Canon of Classical Studies, have forced churches, seminaries, and laypeople to rediscover the need for good, Christian Apologetics.

One thing that both strategic-level apologetics and tactical-level apologetics have in common, is that most people operating at these levels will not be so well-known. The operational level is usually where the more popular preachers and teachers practice their trade and connect with the larger audiences. However, it is at the tactical level that the most significant and impactful use of Apologetics occurs. Big name speakers, traveling lecturers, and busy professors often do not have the time to personally connect with the average church-goer, the curious non-believer, or the co-religionists in the community. Therefore, the tactical apologist, although she may never make a name for herself, might very well wind up playing the most critical and crucial evangelistic role in the grand schemes of things. Certainly in God’s economy name recognition means very little (well, really nothing). Relationality, and depth of engagement with families and individuals, tends to be the primary means through which Christ works out His love. Thus, at the tactical level, we truly “live out” our Apologetics, just like Peter and Paul were doing in Acts.

Because of this, however, the tactical level of Apologetics, being focused on individuals, is usually filled with all kinds of pitfalls and dangers: high-highs and low-lows. Just like in military operations, where IED’s can go off at anytime, snipers can snipe from hundreds of meters away, and sometime the situation can degrade as low as hand-to-hand combat, so too in spiritual battle there can be real conflict that arises when Christ is offered to close family members, friends, neighbors, and co-workers. It can get emotional, heated, visceral. Souls can either become captivated by God, or they can be further hardened and turned away.

The tactical level operator requires more than just the content of Apologetics, she requires a spiritual maturity and a loving heart that can present Truth in a convicting, yet compassionate way. Engaging people means engaging old hurts, deep wounds, bitter memories, secret guilts, and a heart that is often dead-set upon keeping itself safe. Thus, at this level, arguments alone are not enough because we all feel with our hearts far more than we think with our heads. Scripture also gives us insight into this “head-vs.-heart” battle.

The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately sick; who can understand it?

– Jeremiah 17:9

Every man is stupid and without knowledge…

– Jeremiah 10:14 & 51:17

For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22 Claiming to be wise, they became fools…

– Romans 1:21-22

Why do we abandon reason and knowledge, only to become stupid? Because of the illness of the heart! Therefore, although the tactical operators may not be known to the wider community, it is their gritty work that will ultimately count in swaying the tide of the battle, just like the Platoon Sergeant and his squad of “Joes,” who have to “hump it” on patrols day-in and day-out through desert heat, or through the mud of the swamp, in order to take some seemingly small piece of terrain from enemy control.

The Tactical Apologist must, therefore, toil, sweat, and suffer to see the minor victories that only accumulate slowly over time. This does not mean that those at higher levels don’t do their share of hard work, prayer, and empathetic suffering for the greater glory of God. But still, there is something about being down in the trenches, unnamed, unpaid, and possibly unappreciated, that makes work at this local level especially noble. If any level of the apologetical endeavor that I have mentioned in this series is indispensable, it is likely this one. For even though work at all levels is needed, and desperately so, if good Apologetics never gets down to the man, woman and child in the local church, then we leave the majority of the church in the dark.

Due to the dawn of the internet and blogging, however, some tactical-level apologists have begun to make their mark and draw a following. These people are putting the extra time and effort into their Christian walk in the hopes of reaching out to both the church and the everyday seeker; men and women living in the day-to-day. Those who simply don’t have the time to do the heavy lifting of abstract thinking and scholarly reading can now turn to Tactical Apologists providing good content online. One of the best operators at this level is Natasha Crain, who is translating the practice of Apologetics into a much needed domestic, family centered pursuit.

We’ve now looked at my simple, threefold metaphor for grasping what is out there in the world of Christian apologetics, a flourishing spiritual discipline desperately needed in the church today. We looked at the strategic level of Apologetics, where scholars, philosophers, historians, and scientists perform cutting-edge research. Then we defined and illustrated the operational level of translators and disseminators, men and women who can access and engage with their strategic counterparts, but message the complexities of that work out to the broader masses. Finally, we talked here about the tactical operators, who are working with smaller groups and individuals, reaching out to people both at work and at home. Ultimately, all of these levels of operation are necessary and need to be properly synchronized in order for an effective and robust apologetical ministry to exist in today’s Evangelical church.

There is one field of apologists, however, that we have yet to mention. These are people who have developed specialized areas of knowledge or become experts in very particular areas. We will call them the “Spec-Ops” of apologists in keeping with our military metaphor.





Shaping the Battlefield Part III – Operational Apologetics


Operational Apologetics – Preparing the Battlefield & Disseminating the Strategic Vision

In my last post I introduced a simple framework for understanding the world of Christian Apologetics. Using a military metaphor, I broke down this framework into a strategic, operational, and tactical levels of apologetical work. At the strategic level you have the highest level of academic scholarship in areas such as Philosophy, Theology, Biblical Studies and Historical Studies. However, the main difficulty for many Christian, and even non-Christian, seekers engaging at the strategic level of Apologetics, is that it often requires a lot of previous training before such content becomes intellectually accessible. Trying to jump directly into academic works from Plantinga, or Stump can be both frustrating and confusing. This could lead to an early, negative opinion about Apologetics in general  (“it’s far too heady!”), and discourage one from pursuing it at all. This reaction could demotivate the seeker and drive them into a sort of Christian romanticism, that relies only on subjective experience as its marker for truth.

But wait, there is no need to get upset or give up! It’s here that a large body of authors, speakers, and teachers comes into play at a level I call the operational. 

In the Army, the operational level is where strategic visions are translated into tactical (i.e. “boots on the ground”) action. Brigades and Battalions design large operations by accessing the higher-level visions of the Pentagon and larger military entities (Regional Commands, Divisions, etc.), breaking them down into manageable scenarios that smaller units (Companies, Platoons, etc.) will ultimately execute. This is where logistics, planning, intelligence, and administrative personnel construct a very real picture of the battlefield, the opposition, the environment, and the end state for specific battles to be fought.

The key to successful operational procedures is good communication and in Christian Apologetics it is no different. In operational apologetics you have men and women, who have sufficient training to access the scholarly content of strategic thinkers, grasp its meaning, but who have the ability to translate the deeper analyses for a broader audience. These operators relate academic material to the common experience of the man or woman on the street, or in the church. These apologists also tend to be the most well-known, and most accessible speakers in the  landscape of Christian “case-making” (to borrow a term from one of them). They are very visible, well-traveled, and well-rounded workers for Christ.

Many at the operational level will, therefore, be familiar to the average church-goer (at least the Evangelical church-goer). Some of those who have been around for a while are people like Ravi Zacharias, Josh McDowell, and Norm Geisler. Other, relative newcomers, are Nancy Pearcey, Frank Turek, J. Warner Wallace, and Sean McDowell. Greg Koukl, another great translator, also belongs in this group, as well as folks at the Colson Center for Christian Worldview.

What is interesting about these translators is their ability to take difficult concepts and present them accurately and simply. Not all of these communicators have PhD’s, yet something that makes them unique is that they come from very different walks of life, and can speak to a wide range of audiences (Wallace, for example, was a cold-case homicide detective in LA County). Thus, operators convey higher-level discussions about Christianity in ways not limited or restricted by what might be perceived as the “ivory tower of academics.” This is where the rubber hits the road, just as the operational tier of military operations unites the strategic and the tactical, so here communicators take real life experience and connect it to deeper, more abstract thinking.

Of course with any metaphor like the one I am proposing, there are people and groups that do not fit so neatly into one category. I will blog about these in a later post called “special operators,” akin to something like “spec-Ops” in the military world (e.g. Green Berets, SEALS, Marine RECON, CAG, etc.).

In sum, operational-level apologists are usually well-rounded speakers and teachers, who cover a broad range of arguments for the truth of the Christian faith. While some might specialize more than others, most are capable presenters of the philosophical, historical, and scientific arguments in favor of Christian theism, and excel in discussing hot-button issues relevant to the current culture. Sean McDowell, for example, has done a lot of good work in exploring the delicate issues that surround human sexuality and culture, especially  same-sex marriage. Therefore, at the operational level you have the most accessible form of Christian apologetics’ content, content that should not only challenge the novice without overwhelming him, but serve as a stepping stone for those who want to aim higher with sights fixed on the strategic level.

In my next post I will examine the final tier of apologetical operations, namely the tactical. It is at this level that Christian Apologetics is experiencing an absolute  explosion and most likely where the church will find its greatest resource for evangelism to an intellectually stagnant culture.


Shaping the Battlefield Part I: Christian Apologetics

Anyone familiar with the term “Apologetics” will immediately grasp some of the basic ideas associated with the word. First, they will realize that apologetics has to do with building a case for the rationality and truthfulness of the Christian faith, rather than apologizing for Christianity, or for particular Christians. In contrast, those unfamiliar with the discipline may chuckle when they hear the word, likely because they feel owed an actual apology. But, they would be mistaken in taking Apologetics as meaning “to say your sorry,” even if they were genuinely owed one. Apologetics derives from the Greek apologia (απολογια) and means, “to give a verbal defense.” Thus, to employ Apologetics is to defend certain claims about truth and rationality, and that with words.

Quid est Veritas? – What is Truth?

On this blog, I will primarily focus on the central truth claims of Christianity (e.g. God exists, Jesus is God, the Bible is trustworthy, etc.), but occasionally tackle some issues that are not directly about Christianity, but about which I think the Christian worldview can inform us and offer greater insight.

Second, those familiar with Apologetics will recognize its biblical foundation, featured most explicitly in verses like 1 Peter 3:15, and in historical narratives like Acts 17, but also elsewhere in Scripture. In these two particular passages, however, we see both an injunction upon the follower of Jesus by the Apostle Peter, and an evangelistic approach demonstrated by the Apostle Paul, that clearly advocate for the use of reason, evidence, and argumentation.

While some may dismiss the use of reason or evidence as a valid method of presenting the Gospel of Jesus Christ, this does not seem to be a view that scripture itself upholds. While reason alone is by no means the whole story to true knowledge of God, see 1 Cor 1:18-31, reason is still a valid tool for clearing away false beliefs or filling in intellectual lemmas that might hinder one from coming to a full awareness of God in Christ.

Any evangelist with a rudimentary understanding of theology knows that conversion comes only through the power of God; specifically through the person of the Holy Spirit, and that this saving knowledge is non-propositional in nature.

Third, familiarity with Christian Apologetics means knowing a bit of philosophy, history and yes, science. Philosophical arguments for Theism in general are well known and ancient in pedigree. However, they are revised and sharpened by contemporary philosophers, especially in light of new discoveries in the natural sciences. Historiography (i.e. the writing of history) also plays a major role in the apologetical endeavor, especially as one tries to show the validity and reliability of biblical texts, or the theological claims made by the church throughout the last two millennia.

Philosophy, though, is the true handmaiden of Theology, and as Philosophy of Religion in general, and Christian philosophy in particular, have experienced a renaissance in recent academic history. Philosophy of Religion is more popular, and more pursued now, than in nearly a century (at least since the time of the “Logical Positivists“). Further, it can be shown that philosophy is really what many scientists do when they make pronouncements regarding certain empirical observations. Thus, without rigorous philosophical thinking, one cannot begin to have a serious apologetical discussion. Philosophical presuppositions will also effect one’s view of history itself and whether or not we can know any truth about it or from it.

At the same time I mention all of these disciplines, I do not want to present myself as a true expert in any one particular area. I am but a student in training, and always will be. For true expertise you will find links to others, who have been practicing in these fields for many years, plumbing the depths of each discipline.

In my next post I will breakdown my own view of who does Apologetics and at what level they operate (i.e. the strategic, the operational and the tactical). I will continue my survey of Apologetics itself, and then launch into particular areas of dispute. Here, however, I have only given a brief summary of what Apologetics is and why we practice it.

Shaping the Battlefield Part II: Strategic Apologetics

10-tips-to-improve-strategic-planning-for-your-businessThe Strategic View – Creating the Vision

In my last post, I reflected on what Apologetics means, why it is used, and to some degree what it entails. In this post I will introduce a simple metaphor for better understanding the practice of Christian Apologetics, and introduce some of the key figures involved in this practice.

Again, since my ultimate goal here is  to persuade readers to come to a true knowledge of Jesus Christ and the Truth of the Christian faith, I want to  guide readers toward good answers, not just answers that are my own. There are many philosophers, theologians and scientists that I reference who are far more studied and articulate than I. However, this is not to say that deft articulation, or scholarly depth, is even a necessary condition for one to know God and trust in His Word. The Bible itself even teaches this (1 Cor 2:1).  Therefore, I will look at other ways of knowing God directly and simply in later posts. For God is just as often, and often more powerfully, encountered in story or song, than in syllogism.

Now, however, let me present a metaphorical framework for better understanding the world of apologetical pursuit, and then mention some of the best representatives that have been active in that world.

Having come out of the military, I like to use military metaphors to help imagine the apologetical project (obviously, there are several other ways one can view the Apologetics’ landscape, but I think this breaks it down rather simply). This framework is divided into three levels: the strategic, the operational, and the tactical. Let’s look at the strategic level first.

At the strategic level of military operations, one encounters high-ranking officers and their enlisted counterparts who do the deep analysis and broad planning for not how to win a single battle, but a series of battles and ultimately an entire campaign. Strategists shape the battlefield with their ideas. These men and women are usually pioneers and experts in one specific field or discipline (e.g. logistics, intelligence, maneuvers, or administration), but also have a good general grasp of many other areas of operations. They can synthesize large amounts of data, and tend to have long-term perspectives. They are always revising and updating, or innovating new policies and procedure for entire military branches or large parts of a military branch (Army, Navy, etc.). They are  careful students of the ideologies, motivations and practices of their enemies. They create the SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures), the conceptual framework, and the overall vision by which all lower-level entities must, or at least should, operate. These men and women work in and with the government, at the Pentagon, or have command over large, military units that disseminate critical information and top-notch equipment down to lower level operatives.

In the world of Apologetics, the strategic operators are those experts who usually are research professors at ranking academic institutions. These are the PhD-level Philosophers of Religion and Science, the Natural Scientists, the professional Historians and the Metaphysicians. They produce the highest tier of scholarly work and create the new paradigms for understanding the deeper things of existence (e.g. Physics and Metaphysics), knowledge (e.g. Epistemology & Philosophy of Mind) and human activity (e.g. Psychology, Linguistics, Literary and Historical Studies).

While the content of their research usually is far more specific than at the other levels of operation, the depth of their knowledge and expertise is ultimately what will shape the broader debate over longer periods of time. Men and women like these, who set-up new intellectual paradigms, are often not around to see the fruit of their labors. Although, with the flow of information speeding up due to technology, even this is changing. Still, the “trickle-down” nature of high-level scholarship can take multiple generations before seeing its effects in popular culture.

For example, the hyper-relativism of post-modernist thought that we “enjoy” in our culture today really begins with philosophers like Nietzsche at the end of the 19th century. To better understand this phenomena, one should read anything by Francis Schaeffer. In later posts, I will suggest how I believe Christianity will be experiencing a major revival in the next 30-40 years due to work that was done in the 6o’s, 7o’s and 8o’s, both in Philosophy of Religion and Biblical Studies.

Much of that recent work has been carried out by preeminent Christian scholars, who have been doing research in areas of Metaphysics and Epistemology. They are believers like: Alvin Plantinga, William Lane Craig, Peter van Ingwagen, J.P. Moreland, Douglas Geivett, Brian Leftow, Francis Beckwith, Alexander Pruss, Robin Collins, Richard Swinburne and many others. Obviously, we cannot do an exhaustive survey of all current philosophers, who are also believers in Christ (this list would include both traditional Evangelical and Catholic scholars), but you get the picture.

These people, who have pioneered new ways (or successfully defended old ways; see Craig’s Kalam Cosmological argument) of thinking about God, time, the universe, and Christian doctrines, are careful in their research, writing, and articulation of Christian theism. Further, other strategic level operators exist in the area of the natural sciences, especially, but not limited to, the Intelligent Design movement. They tend to be biochemists, microbiologist, geologists or physicists. Counted among them are men like Michael Behe, Douglas Axe, John Polkinghorne, James Tour, Francis Collins (of Biologos fame) and several others (not to mention basically all scientists prior to the mid-19th century, e.g. Newton, Faraday, Babbage, etc.). Also, there are philosophers of science, like Willam Dembski and Stephen Meyer, who have written groundbreaking works (here and here) in that area (none, of course, which go uncontested).

Again, to survey all Christian scientists (not to be confused with “Christian Science,” a heresy we might discuss in later posts) would be herculean, but a mere glance at some of the work by the aforementioned philosophers or scientists should suffice to demonstrate that these apologists are operating at a high level of scholarship and academic excellence. In conclusion, these strategic players should put to rest any fallacious claims by skeptics that Christianity has a “smart people problem.” Just consider John Polkinghorne’s story, for one example, and you should be compelled to reassess any such position.

Of course, we don’t want to neglect strategic scholarship in the area of historical studies; an area that will be critical in our discussion of the Bible, especially as it pertains to Higher Biblical Criticism, and also Lower or Textual Criticism. Here we will meet strategic operators like Daniel Wallace, J.P. Meier, Bruce Metzger, Michael Licona, Ernst Würthwein, John Walton, N.T. Wright and others who have dedicated their lives to understanding and analyzing the text of the Bible itself.

Having reviewed some of the high-level purveyors of Christian apologetics, we can begin to see the specific content areas that this blog site will primarily focus on: 1) Christian philosophy, especially Metaphysics, Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind and Ethics, 2) Intelligent Design & Evolutionary Theory and 3) the historicity and reliability of the Bible.

In conclusion, the strategic level of operations is where the highest-level academic and scholarly work in Apologetics’ related areas is carried out. It is where the most rigorous and penetrating thoughts and reflections on existence, knowledge, and human action are conceived and find their articulation. The only problem with the strategic level of inquiry, however, is that most of us cannot simply jump into this stratosphere without previous training or study. Most philosophers like Alvin Plantinga are not easy to simply pick up and start reading: in fact, Plantinga is near impossible for the untrained mind! It takes time and effort to even begin to understand this level of thought and argumentation for the veracity of the Christian faith. Thus, we need to introduce a second-tier of the apologetical framework that will allow us to access these higher-level thinkers and writers.

In our next post we will discuss the operational level of Apologetics and meet some of the most prominent spokespeople in that domain. Many of these names will be very familiar to the average church-goer and probably even to the man-on-the-street skeptic.